• Hot weather information

    The following repeats information from these sources: National Federation Sports Medicine Handbook, NATA Fluid Replacement Guidelines, NCHSAA Handbook, and the American Red Cross Sport Safety Training Handbook. Athletes should be informed of the information contained in this document.

    Recommendations for Fluid Replacement

    • Athletes should be educated in the process of hydrating themselves as a 24 hour a day process.
    • Before exercise:
      • Drink 17-20 ounces of water 2-3 hours before exercise
      • Drink an additional 7-10 ounces of water 10-20 minutes before exercise
    • During exercise:
      • Refer to WCPSS Hot Weather Guidelines for Athletic Practice
    • After exercise:
      • Drink enough fluids to replace any weight loss within two hours of completion of activity
      • Fluid replacement should be at a rate of 24 ounces for every pound of body weight lost after exercise
    • Urine color is an easy method to determine hydration status. Light yellow to clear urine indicates a well-hydrated athlete.

    Signs and Symptoms of Heat Problems

    Early Stages (sometimes called heat exhaustion)

    • Cool, moist, pale, ashen, or flushed skin
    • Headache, nausea, dizziness
    • Weakness, exhaustion
    • Heavy sweating

    Late Stages (sometimes called heat stroke)

    • Red, hot, dry skin
    • Changes in level of consciousness
    • Vomiting


    The athletic trainer should be contacted immediately when an athlete exhibits signs and symptoms of heat illness. The following care is recommended for an athlete exhibiting signs and symptoms of heat illness.

    • Cessation of activity
    • Move the athlete to a cool place
    • Loosen tight clothing
    • Remove perspiration-soaked clothing
    • Apply cool, wet cloths to the skin
    • Fan the athlete
    • If conscious, give cool water to drink

    If at any time the athlete exhibits the following signs and symptoms:

    • refuses water
    • vomits
    • skin is unusually red, hot, and dry for the weather conditions (dry clothes also)
    • starts to lose consciousness
    1. Send someone to call EMS personnel (Emergency Action Plan).
    2. Place the athlete on his or her side.
    3. Continue to cool the athlete by using ice or cold packs on the wrists, ankles, groin, and neck and in the armpits.
    4. Continue to check breathing and pulse.